The authors argue that the Pacific temperatures used to be much warmer sometime during the Holocene (last 11,700 years). For example, some 6,000 years ago, we had the middle Holocene Thermal Maximum. That’s when the great civilizations were born and the Pacific waters near Antarctica and North Pacific were 2.1 °C and 1.5 °C warmer than in the 20th century, respectively! (The error margin is said to be 0.4 °C in both cases.)
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